Research Project - #PRN/33 Operation Swan Lake


(2028 - 2029)


Used in design of : Psychotronic Transmitter Chamber 2
Soviet Space Stamp, issued 1971
epicting Mars 3 Re-entry Module.
Mars 3 voyaged to Mars in 1971 collecting significant data.

Mission Profile
Mars 3 was launched towards Mars from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (71-049C) Earth orbiting platform. A mid-course correction was made on 8 June. The descent module (71-049F) was released at 09:14 UT on 2 December 1971, 4 hours 35 minutes before reaching Mars. The descent module entered the martian atmosphere at roughly 5.7 km/s. Through aerodynamic braking, parachutes, and retro-rockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45 S, 158 W and began operations. However, after 20 sec the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons, perhaps as a result of the massive surface dust storms raging at the time of landing. Meanwhile, the orbiter had suffered from a partial loss of fuel and did not have enough to put itself into a planned 25 hour orbit. The engine instead performed a truncated burn to put the spacecraft into a long 12 day, 19 hour period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2 (48.9 degrees). The Mars 2 and 3 orbiters sent back a large volume of data covering the period from December 1971 to March 1972, although transmissions continued through August. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972, after 362 orbits completed by Mars 2 and 20 orbits by Mars 3. The probes sent back a total of 60 pictures. The images and data revealed mountains as high as 22 km, atomic hydrogen and oxygen in the upper atmosphere, surface temperatures ranging from -110 C to +13 C, surface pressures of 5.5 to 6 mb, water vapor concentrations 5000 times less than in Earth's atmosphere, the base of the ionosphere starting at 80 to 110 km altitude, and grains from dust storms as high as 7 km in the atmosphere. The data enabled creation of surface relief maps, and gave information on the martian gravity and magnetic fields.
Sponsoring Agencies/Countries

Used in design of International Time Travel Teleporter
Mongolian Space Stamp, issued 1967 depicting Mariner 5

The Mariner 5 spacecraft was launched June 14, 1967, and flew by Venus on October 19 of that year at a distance of 4,000 kilometers (2,480 miles).
The Mariner 5 spacecraft was the fifth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in the flyby mode. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 mission and was converted from a Mars mission to a Venus mission. The spacecraft was fully attitude stabilized, using the Sun and Canopus as references. A central computer and sequencer subsystem supplied timing sequences and computing services for other spacecraft subsystems. Mariner 5 was launched on June 14, 1967, and arrived in the vicinity of Venus on October 19, 1967. The spacecraft carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus's atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet. The closest flyby distance was 3,990 kilometers (2,480 miles) and, with more sensitive instruments than its predecessor, Mariner 5 was able to shed new light on the hot, cloud-covered planet and on conditions in interplanetary space. The spacecraft also advanced the techniques of building and operating interplanetary spacecraft, as had each Mariner before it. All operations of Mariner 5 were closed out in November 1967. (Courtesy NASA/JPL)

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